This page is part of the Guide to Disaster Recovery Capitals. The seven recovery capitals are deeply interrelated – click through to explore them all.


  1. Stofferahn CW. Community capitals and disaster recovery: Northwood ND recovers from an EF 4 tornado. Community Development. 2012;43(5):581–98.
  2. Mooney M, Tarrant R, Paton D, Johal S, Johnston D. Getting through: Children’s effective coping and adaptation in the context of the Canterbury, New Zealand, earthquakes of 2010-2012. Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies. 2017;21(1):19–30.
  3. van Kessel G, MacDougall C, Gibbs L. The Process of Rebuilding Human Resilience in the Face of the Experience of a Natural Disaster: A Multisystem Model. IJEMHHR. 2015;17(4):678–87.
  4. Settembrino MR. Hurricane Sandy’s impact on the predisaster homeless and homeless shelter services in New Jersey. Journal of emergency management (Weston, Mass). 2016;14(1):7–16.
  5. Ulubaşoğlu M. Natural disasters increase inequality. Recovery funding may make things worse. The Conversation. 2020 Feb 27;
  6. Richardson D, Denniss R. Gender experiences during the COVID-19 lockdown. The Australia Institute. 2020;
  7. Ulubaşoğlu MA, Rahman MH, Önder YK, Chen Y, Rajabifard A. Floods, Bushfires and Sectoral Economic Output in Australia, 1978–2014. Economic Record. 2019 Mar 15;95(308):58–80.
  8. Brady K. Disaster recovery: Are we doomed to repeat the same mistakes? Australian Journal of Emergency Management, The. 2018;33(3):10.
  9. Blake D, Niland P, Johnston D. Health emergency management in Aotearoa New Zealand: Making sense of professional development. Journal of Emergency Management. 2019;17(5):359–69.
  10. Johal S, Mounsey Z, Tuohy R, Johnston D. Coping with Disaster: General Practitioners’ Perspectives on the Impact of the Canterbury Earthquakes. PLoS Currents. 2014;(APR):1–9.
  11. Johal S, Mounsey Z, Brannelly P, Johnston D. Nurse perspectives on the practical, emotional, and professional impacts of living and working in post-earthquake Canterbury, New Zealand. Prehospital and disaster medicine. 2016;31(1):10–6.
  12. Wills J. Supporting the supporters in disaster recovery: Winston Churchill Fellowship [Internet]. New Zealand Red Cross; 2014 Sep. Available from:
  13. Brady K. Recovery workers who have also been personally affected by disasters: Exploring the perspective of people who have dual experiences of disaster recovery. Manuscript under review.
  14. Yumagulova L, Phibbs S, Kenney CM, Yellow Old Woman-Munro D, Christianson AC, McGee TK, et al. The role of disaster volunteering in Indigenous communities. Environmental Hazards. 2021;20(1):45–62.
  15. Beaven S, Wilson T, Johnston L, Johnston D, Smith R. Research engagement after disasters: research coordination before, during, and after the 2011–2012 Canterbury earthquake sequence, New Zealand. Earthquake Spectra. 2016;32(2):713–35.
  16. Aldrich DP. Challenges to Coordination: Understanding Intergovernmental Friction During Disasters. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science. 2019 Sep;10(3):306–16.
  17. Nakasu T, Ono Y, Pothisiri W. Why did Rikuzentakata have a high death toll in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster? Finding the devastating disaster’s root causes. International journal of disaster risk reduction. 2018;27:21–36.
  18. Hansen A, Bi P, Saniotis A. Extreme heat and climate change: adaptation in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities. 2013;
  19. Drabek TE. The human side of disaster. CRC Press; 2016.
  20. McClure J, Henrich L, Johnston D, Doyle EEH. Are two earthquakes better than one? How earthquakes in two different regions affect risk judgments and preparation in three locations. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2016 Jun 1;16:192–9.
  21. Marshall MI, Niehm LS, Sydnor SB, Schrank HL. Predicting small business demise after a natural disaster: an analysis of pre-existing conditions. Natural Hazards. 2015;79(1):331–54.
  22. Marlowe J, Lou L. The Canterbury Earthquakes and refugee communities. Aotearoa New Zealand Social Work Review. 2013;25(2).
  23. Zscheischler J, Westra S, Van Den Hurk BJ, Seneviratne SI, Ward PJ, Pitman A, et al. Future climate risk from compound events. Nature Climate Change. 2018;8(6):469–77.
  24. Becker JS, Coomer MA, Blake D, Garden E, Rampton A, Newman-Hall G, et al. Impact of the 2016 Kaikōura Earthquake on Wellington CBD Apartment Residents: Results of a Survey. Lower Hutt (NZ): GNS Science. 2018;
  25. Morrow BH. Identifying and mapping community vulnerability. Disasters. 1999;23(1):1–18.
  26. Thomas DSK, Phillips BD, Lovekamp WE, Fothergill A. Social vulnerability to disasters. CRC Press; 2013.
  27. Tierney K. Disasters: A sociological approach. John Wiley & Sons; 2019.
  28. Blake D, Marlowe J, Johnston D. Get prepared: Discourse for the privileged? International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2017 Oct 1;25:283–8.
  29. Williamson B, Markham F, Weir J. Aboriginal peoples and the response to the 2019–2020 bushfires, Working Paper No. 134/2020. Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Australian National University, Canberra; 2020.
  30. Himes-Cornell A, Ormond C, Hoelting K, Ban NC, Zachary Koehn J, Allison EH, et al. Factors Affecting Disaster Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Using the Community Capitals Framework. Coastal Management. 2018 Sep 3;46(5):335–58.
  31. Gallagher C, Block K, Gibbs L, Forbes D, Lusher D, Molyneaux R, et al. The effect of group involvement on post-disaster mental health: A longitudinal multilevel analysis. Social Science & Medicine. 2019;220:167–75.
  32. Ombler J, Washington S. Seismic Shifts: The Canterbury earthquakes and public sector innovation. Future-Proofing the State. 2014;277.
  33. Dibley G, Mitchell L, Ireton G, Gordon R. Government’s role in supporting community-led approaches to recovery. 2019.
  34. Comfort LK, Boin A, Demchak CC. Designing resilience: Preparing for extreme events. University of Pittsburgh Pre; 2010.
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  36. Usdin L. Building resiliency and supporting distributive leadership post-disaster. International Journal of Leadership in Public Services. 2014;
  37. Gibbs L, Nursey J, Carpenter L, Cowlishaw S, Roberts M, Cook J, et al. Post-disaster academic progress: long term impacts on secondary school students from bushfire exposure in Australia (Under review). Child Development.
  38. Strøm IF, Schultz J-H, Wentzel-Larsen T, Dyb G. School performance after experiencing trauma: a longitudinal study of school functioning in survivors of the Utøya shootings in 2011. European Journal of Psychotraumatology. 2016;7(31359-
  39. Gibbs L, Molyneaux R, Harms L, Gallangher HC, Block K, Richardson J, et al. 10 Years Beyond Bushfires Report 2020. Melbourne, Australia: University of Melbourne; 2020.

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This resource has been developed through the Recovery Capitals (ReCap) project.
Artwork on this page by Oslo Davis and Frances Belle Parker.

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