This page is part of the Guide to Disaster Recovery Capitals. The seven recovery capitals are deeply interrelated – click through to explore them all.


  1. Szreter S, Woolcock M. Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of public health. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2004;33(4):650–67.
  2. Aldrich DP. Building resilience: Social capital in post-disaster recovery. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 2012. 232 p.
  3. Townshend I, Awosoga O, Kulig J, Fan H. Social cohesion and resilience across communities that have experienced a disaster. Natural Hazards. 2015;76(2):913–38.
  4. Himes-Cornell A, Ormond C, Hoelting K, Ban NC, Zachary Koehn J, Allison EH, et al. Factors Affecting Disaster Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Using the Community Capitals Framework. Coastal Management. 2018 Sep 3;46(5):335–58.
  5. Van Kessel, G., Gibbs, L., & MacDougall C. Strategies to enhance resilience post-natural disaster: a qualitative study of experiences with Australian floods and fires. Journal of Public Health. 2014;37(2):328–36.
  6. Gibbs L, Gallagher HC, Block K, Snowdon E, Bryant R, Harms L, et al. Post-bushfire relocation decision-making and personal wellbeing: A case study from Victoria, Australia. In: Adenrele Awotona, editor. Planning for Community-based Disaster Resilience Worldwide: Learning from Case Studies in Six Continents. London and New York: Routledge; 2016. p. 333–56.
  7. Kaniasty K. Predicting social psychological well-being following trauma: The role of postdisaster social support. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. 2012;4(1):22–33.
  8. Gallagher C, Block K, Gibbs L, Forbes D, Lusher D, Molyneaux R, et al. The effect of group involvement on post-disaster mental health: A longitudinal multilevel analysis. Social Science & Medicine. 2019;220:167–75.
  9. Iwasaki K, Sawada Y, Aldrich DP. Social capital as a shield against anxiety among displaced residents from Fukushima. Natural Hazards. 2017 Oct 23;89(1):405–21.
  10. Williamson B, Markham F, Weir J. Aboriginal peoples and the response to the 2019–2020 bushfires, Working Paper No. 134/2020. Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Australian National University, Canberra; 2020.
  11. VanLandingham MJ. Weathering Katrina: Culture and Recovery among Vietnamese Americans. Russell Sage Foundation; 2017.
  12. Kenney CM, Phibbs SR, Paton D, Reid J, Johnston DM. Community-led disaster risk management: A Māori response to ōtautahi (christchurch) earthquakes. Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies. 2015;19(Special Issue):9–20.
  13. Moreton MRJ. A study of four natural disasters in Australia: how the human response to fire, flood and cyclone contributes to community resilience and recovery. 2016;
  14. Aldrich DP, Page-Tan C, Fraser T. A Janus-faced resource: Social capital and resilience trade-offs. In: Trump BD, Florin M-V, Linkov I, editors. IRGC resource guide on resilience (vol 2): Domains of resilience for complex interconnected systems. Lausanne, CH: EPFL International Risk Governance Center; 2018.
  15. van Kessel G, MacDougall C, Gibbs L. The Process of Rebuilding Human Resilience in the Face of the Experience of a Natural Disaster: A Multisystem Model. IJEMHHR. 2015;17(4):678–87.
  16. Johal S, Mounsey Z, Tuohy R, Johnston D. Coping with Disaster: General Practitioners’ Perspectives on the Impact of the Canterbury Earthquakes. PLoS Currents. 2014;(APR):1–9.
  17. Camilleri P, Healy C, Macdonald E, Nicholls S, Sykes J, Winkworth G, et al. Recovery from bushfires: The experience of the 2003 Canberra bushfires three years after. Australasian Journal of Paramedicine. 2010;8(1):15.
  18. Sadri AM, Ukkusuri S V, Lee S, Clawson R, Aldrich D, Nelson MS, et al. The role of social capital, personal networks, and emergency responders in post-disaster recovery and resilience: a study of rural communities in Indiana. Natural hazards. 2018;90(3):1377–406.
  19. Urmson K, Johnston D, Kemp S. Asking for help and receiving support after a disaster. Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies. 2016;20(1):3–14.
  20. Gibbs L, Block K, Harms L, MacDougall C, Snowdon E, Ireton G, et al. Children and young people’s wellbeing post-disaster: Safety and stability are critical. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2015;14:195–201.
  21. Harms L, Gibbs L, Ireton G, MacDougall C, Brady K, Kosta L, et al. Stressors and Supports in Postdisaster Recovery: Experiences After the Black Saturday Bushfires. Australian Social Work. 2021;1–16.
  22. Mooney M, Tarrant R, Paton D, Johal S, Johnston D. Getting through: Children’s effective coping and adaptation in the context of the Canterbury, New Zealand, earthquakes of 2010-2012. Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies. 2017;21(1):19–30.
  23. Bryant R, Gallagher H, Waters E, Gibbs L, Pattison P, MacDougall C, et al. Mental Health and Social Networks After Disaster. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2017 Mar;174(3):277–85.
  24. Harms L, Gallagher H, Gibbs L, Bryant R, Lusher D, Richardson J, et al. Conceptualising post-disaster recovery: Incorporating Grief Experiences. British Journal of Social Work. 2015;45((suppl 1): i170-i187).
  25. Chamlee-Wright E, Rothschild DM. Disastrous uncertainty: how government disaster policy undermines community rebound. Mercatus Policy Series Mercatus Center, George Mason University. 2007;(9).
  26. Ahangama N, Prasanna R, Blake D. The influence of relational and cognitive capital on knowledge networks: Disaster drill experiences in Ratnapura, Sri Lanka. Resilience: International Policies, Practices and Discourses. 2019 Jun 18;
  27. Fraser C, Blake D. Valuing Voices: Sex workers’ experiences following the Canterbury earthquakes. Disaster Research Science Report; 2020/01. Wellington (NZ); 2020.
  28. Aldrich DP, Crook K. Strong civil society as a double-edged sword: Siting trailers in post-Katrina New Orleans. Political Research Quarterly. 2008;61(3):379–89.
  29. Williamson T. Beyond social capital: Social justice in recovery and resilience. Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy. 2013;4(1):28–31.
  30. Yang J, Yang Y, Liu X, Tian J, Zhu X, Miao D. Self-efficacy, social support, and coping strategies of adolescent earthquake survivors in China. Social Behavior and Personality. 2010;38(9):1219–28.
  31. Thomas DSK, Phillips BD, Lovekamp WE, Fothergill A. Social vulnerability to disasters. CRC Press; 2013.
  32. Dominey-Howes D, Gorman-Murray A, McKinnon S. Emergency management response and recovery plans in relation to sexual and gender minorities in New South Wales, Australia. International journal of disaster risk reduction. 2016;16:1–11.
  33. Smiley KT, Howell J, Elliott JR. Disasters, local organizations, and poverty in the USA, 1998 to 2015. Population and Environment. 2018;40(2):115–35.
  34. Hughey J, Speer PW, Peterson NA. Sense of community in community organizations: Structure and evidence of validity. Journal of community psychology. 1999;27(1):97–113.
  35. Aldrich DP. The power of people: Social capital’s role in recovery from the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Natural Hazards. 2011 Mar 18;56(3):595–611.
  36. Thomassin A, Neale T, Weir JK. The natural hazard sector’s engagement with Indigenous peoples: a critical review of CANZUS countries. Geographical research. 2019;57(2):164–77.
  37. Stough LM, Sharp AN, Resch JA, Decker C, Wilker N. Barriers to the long‐term recovery of individuals with disabilities following a disaster. Disasters. 2016;40(3):387–410.
  38. Tuohy R, Stephens C, Johnston D. Older adults’ disaster preparedness in the context of the September 2010-December 2012 Canterbury earthquake sequence. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2014 Sep 1;9:194–203.
  39. Zander KK, Petheram L, Garnett ST. Stay or leave? Potential climate change adaptation strategies among Aboriginal people in coastal communities in northern Australia. Natural Hazards. 2013;67(2):591–609.
  40. Haney TJ. Paradise Found? The Emergence of Social Capital, Place Attachment, and Civic Engagement after Disaster. Vol. 36, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters. 2018.
  41. Aldrich DP. Challenges to Coordination: Understanding Intergovernmental Friction During Disasters. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science. 2019 Sep;10(3):306–16.
  42. Dibley G, Mitchell L, Ireton G, Gordon R. Government’s role in supporting community-led approaches to recovery. 2019.
  43. Aldrich DP. It’s who you know: Factors driving recovery from Japan’s 11 March 2011 disaster. Public Administration. 2016 Jun;94(2):399–413.
  44. Aldrich DP. Black wave: how networks and governance shaped Japan’s 3/11 disasters. University of Chicago Press; 2019.
  45. Usher K, Ranmuthugala G, Maple M, Durkin J, Douglas L, Coffey Y, et al. The 2019–2020 bushfires and COVID‐19: The ongoing impact on the mental health of people living in rural and farming communities. 2021;
  46. Zottarelli LK. Broken bond: An exploration of human factors associated with companion animal loss during Hurricane Katrina. Sociological Forum. 2010;25(1):110–22.
  47. Thompson K. Save me, save my dog: Increasing natural disaster preparedness and survival by addressing human-animal relationships. Australian Journal of Communication. 2013;40(1):123–36.
  48. Thompson K, Every D, Rainbird S, Cornell V, Smith B, Trigg J. No pet or their person left behind: Increasing the disaster resilience of vulnerable groups through animal attachment, activities and networks. Animals. 2014;4(2):214–40.
  49. Hunt M, Al-Awadi H, Johnson M. Psychological sequelae of pet loss following Hurricane Katrina. Anthrozoös. 2008;21(2):109–21.

Re Cap Org Logos

This resource has been developed through the Recovery Capitals (ReCap) project.
Artwork on this page by Oslo Davis and Frances Belle Parker.

Re Cap Home Button

Contact ReCap

Please contact Phoebe Quinn with any comments or enquiries: (03) 8344 3097, or

To stay updated about the project, you can subscribe below and follow Beyond Bushfires on Facebook and Twitter.

Subscribe to ReCap updates